Project team: Creative Commons, CAST, Carnegie Mellon Open Learning Initiative,
and the Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges.
Cable Green and Paul Stacey
This paper provides an overview of OER and related services the Open Professionals Education Network (OPEN) (http://open4us.org) is providing to U.S. Department of Labor Trade Adjustment Assistance Community College and Career Training (TAACCCT) grantees.
This chapter will help readers:
- understand how to embed OER policies and practices in a large scale publicly funded OER initiative
- model complementary services that strengthen online & technology enabled learning, and enhance the work and success of grantees
- conceptualize an over-arching vision and plan for leveraging services in a way that supports sustainability and scaling of OER along with spread of policy and requirements to other government departments and programs
This chapter can be reused by policy makers, those responsible for publicly funded grant programs, institutions, OER developers, and researchers interested in maximizing impact and scaling of OER initiatives. The content of this chapter can be reused under the Creative Commons Attribution License. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
Open Educational Resources (OER), US Department of Labor, Open Policy, Creative Commons License CC BY, community colleges, Creative Commons, Carnegie Mellon Open Learning Initiative (OLI), CAST, Washington State Board For Community and Technical Colleges (SBCTC)
1. OPEN EDUCATIONAL IMAGE
Development of new educational resources as OER can be incentivized through funding (a carrot) and maximized through collaboration (working together). What government and/or institutional curriculum development initiatives in your region could benefit from pursuing a similar approach?
OER1: More Carrots Less Stick
Author: Alan Levine
Objectives: Reflect on the development of new educational resources as OER can be incentivized through funding (a carrot) and maximized through collaboration (working together).
License: Creative Commons (CC BY) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/deed.en_CA
2. INTRODUCTION – Project Overview
In February 2011 the U.S. Department of Labor announced the Trade Adjustment Assistance Community College and Career Training (TAACCCT) grant program, which will make available up to $2 billion over the next four years for community colleges to develop educational and career-training programs for displaced workers. An exciting condition of the funding is that all resources must be licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY), making TAACCCT the largest federal investment in OER to date in the United States.
Creative Commons worked quickly with its partners the Carnegie Mellon Open Learning Initiative, CAST, and the Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges to conceive and develop a set of infrastructure services and support for TAACCCT grantees. Creative Commons has received funding from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation to lead this effort. The set of comprehensive services will lend technical support to grantees in meeting the open licensing requirement and ensure the interoperability of education and training materials. In addition, the services will guide grantees to adopt best practices for OER course design and technology, instill institutional knowledge and policies aligned with open licensing, and incorporate a robust evaluation component to track successful progress so that subsequent rounds of TAACCCT funding continue with the important open licensing provision intact.
The $2 billion Trade Adjustment Assistance Community College and Career Training Grant (TAACCCT) program from the U.S. Department of Labor (DOL) represents a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity for building a community college curriculum based on best practices for teaching, learning and openness. While exemplary design principles are contained in the DOL grant, looming challenges for effective execution and support of grantees remain. Strategic intervention from expert resources is critical. We must both raise the baseline for community college education based on best practices, and foster an exponential spread of the benefits.
OPEN (http://open4us.org) is a collaborative effort of Creative Commons (CC), Carnegie Mellon Open Learning Initiative (OLI), Center for Applied Special Technology (CAST) and the Washington State Board for Community & Technical Colleges (SBCTC). We will provide comprehensive infrastructure support and capacity building to all DOL grantees to help them meet the OER requirements of the grant, adopt best practices in OER and learning design, develop institutional skills in open licensing, and document successes critical to ensuring future rounds of funding. These services address a missing component of the TAACCCT grant program, and create a true multiplier effect by developing systems that are adoptable and adaptable, and that enable the broadest possible benefit from this huge public investment.
Creative Commons will provide technical support in meeting the open licensing requirement and ensuring interoperability of content. OLI brings expertise in applying results from the learning sciences to the design, implementation, evaluation and continuous improvement of open web-based learning environments. OLI will work with CAST, pioneers in the field of Universal Design for Learning (UDL), to offer all grantees technical support and enabling technologies to ensure that all of the digital content and learning environments developed in this project succeed with the widest range of learners possible.
SBCTC is one of the lead community college systems in the United States fully embracing OER and open licensing, and will work to develop best practices in adoption and use, policies and professional development that work for all participating institutions.
OPEN will advocate for the adoption of best practices, foster collaboration and build the capacity of all DOL grantees, ensure interoperability of content, work for maximum adoption and impact as projects move to scale, innovate in web-based learning environments, and evaluate all aspects of the work in order to contribute to greater effectiveness of future US federal grants and any other government grant. By working with TAACCCT grantees, we will ensure that this massive infusion of support for post-secondary education improves opportunities for all students enrolled in community colleges in the United States and around the world.
3. PROJECT DESCRIPTION
OPEN will provide comprehensive infrastructure support and capacity building to TAACCCT grantees designed to maximize their impact and ensure that all educational products that they create contribute as broadly as possible to the improvement of post-secondary education.
Such an effort, and private support, is required because the TAACCCT funding legislation did not include funding for technical assistance in implementing key requirements of the grant, nor did it provide a mechanism for collaborative work among grantees. While open licensing of educational materials is a requirement, most community colleges have little experience with open licensing protocol and practices. Even fewer have transitioned to effective web-based learning environments. Without these core infrastructure supports, the thoughtful principles and significant funding from TAACCCT could result in old technology and methodologies being perpetuated, rather than leading to the creation of a new standards supported by decades of knowledge on best practices. By offering these supports to the entire pool of grantees, we are also able to encourage collaborative linkages that can significantly further the goals of the grant.
To address these critical support and infrastructure needs, four leading organizations in the field of open educational resources have formed OPEN to work collaboratively and synergistically to provide a tightly integrated response to the technology and best practice challenges. All, approximately 50 grantees will receive comprehensive infrastructure support and capacity building. A smaller subset called Plus Platform will utilize a UDL-enhanced OLI platform to host their own web-based OER. A group of three to four Plus Co-development grantees will be selected to engage in a full OLI/CAST design process for OER on the UDL-enhanced OLI platform (as shown in the graphic and described in further detail below).
3.1. Comprehensive Infrastructure Support and Capacity Building
OPEN will provide every TAACCCT grantee a comprehensive set of supports and technical assistance to ensure their success. Those services include reinforcing open licensing practices, increasing access to existing OER, UDL, accessibility and web-based design best practices, as well as professional development in critical policy and adoption practices. Every effort will be made not only to link grantees with existing resources, but also to encourage linkages among them to maximize benefits and build open licensing capacity in the community college space. Willingness and resources to work collaboratively will be part of our initial survey of each grantee.
3.2. Open Licensing Support
In an obvious recognition of the utility of the Creative Commons framework, the TAACCCT requires that all materials created using grant funds be released under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY) license. Creative Commons is well suited to explain its licenses and tools (especially CC BY) to DOL grantees, and has extensive experience in adapting explanatory documentation and outreach to various audiences.
As one of the world’s leading authorities on open licensing, CC has worked with organizations large and small to meet the challenges of effectively sharing their content. For OPEN, CC will focus on helping grantees implement the creative commons attribution (CC BY) license. CC will work with them to ensure maximum impact by guiding grantees to follow best practices for content production and rights clearing in the context of open licensing (“IP hygiene”), publishing with machine-readable metadata, and integrating CC BY in all elements of content creation software. This work will build internal capacity as CC works with legal, technology and publishing departments at each institution, training their staff to become skilled implementers of open licensing.
While these are time-intensive relationships due to common fears about open licensing, institutional resistance to change, and the need to tailor each conversation to the specifics of each distinctive institution’s resources and culture, correct implementation in the first wave is critical to the success of subsequent waves of the DOL grant. If we hope to preserve the significant opportunities for downstream innovation, it is essential that CC BY is not just language affixed to documents to meet a grant requirement, but rather an actual commitment to the principles and practices of open licensing.
Creative Commons will also help build awareness of existing public domain and CC BY educational materials, create links to existing OER networks, and provide legal, technical and social implementation best practices through phone and e-mail consultation and in-person training.
To promote use of existing OER and CC-BY licensed content we will:
- educate all DOL grantees on OER and CC BY licensing, including how to find and download existing OER resources;
- create search and discovery federated searches, by industry sector, to make it easy for the DOL grantees to find existing open content; and
- produce lists of OER in each industry cluster.
Finally, Creative Commons will lead OPEN in organizing three National Summits (in-person & online) and multiple (live & archived) webinars on adoption and re-use of TAACCCT open content. These will include a kick-off/planning, mid-project, and a final sharing/adoption conference. Events will be scheduled in locations across the country and advance goals for adoption and education on best practices. TAACCCT grantees will be surveyed prior to each summit to ensure the summits’ agendas are aligned to grantees’ needs.
As TAACCCT applicants become increasingly aware of OER, they have begun requesting assistance in identifying existing OER content to review, rather than having to start from scratch. Looking forward to Waves 2, 3, and 4, we can envision the continuous cycle of improvement and sharing yielding an enormous impact and accelerating the creation and adoption of high-quality OER. SBCTC has been working on these same issues in its Open Course Library project. This project will leverage both lessons learned and OER lists created .
Most importantly, CC will lead knowledge sharing and further development of materials and policies to ensure the open content resources are interoperable, promote downstream innovation, and create the conditions necessary to produce better learning outcomes. This requires work beyond providing information and consulting to individual grantees. This component will include working with software vendors and other providers common to multiple grantees to improve built-in support for open content best practices, thereby streamlining and improving further implementations. CC will also work with potential external consumers of funded materials such as search engines and international communities to directly increase the discoverability, dissemination and impact of funded materials. A series of summits and workshops will be utilized to share knowledge and train grantees.
All grantees will qualify for these services. We plan to utilize completionmatters.org or a comparable online collaboration tool to connect them to the work and to each other. When either need or opportunity suggests, CC is prepared to tackle high-opportunity/high-payoff projects to offer more intensive services to ensure positive outcomes. We will look for projects with the highest possible return on investment. As a greater number of institution in the community college arena gain skills and successfully adopt, repurpose and publish OER, the likelihood of future success in all community colleges increases as well.
3.3. Course Design and Best Practices
Carnegie Mellon University OLI leverages learning science and emerging information technologies to design web-based interactive open educational resources (OER) that reduce cost and increase effectiveness in higher education. OLI provides a methodology and platform for developing, delivering and continuously improving the OER.
The Center for Applied Special Technology (CAST), the research and development organization that pioneered the field of Universal Design for Learning (UDL), will provide expertise and enabling technologies to ensure that all of the digital content and learning environments (including the technical assistance programs) developed in this project are designed to succeed with the widest range of learners possible – including those with disabilities, English language learners, students who are disadvantaged in prior education and others needing special consideration. The necessity of embedding UDL principles in OER developed materials has been a valid critique of OER. This proposed project creates a timely and needed intervention in the evolution of OER developed materials that will further extend reach and impact.
CAST will provide expertise in UDL and ensure a proper application to the needs of community and technical college students. CAST will also advise grantees on how best to implement complementary standards pertaining to accessibility (IMS “Access for All” and Section 508) and learning that addresses learner variation. (CAST is presently facilitating the Higher Education Commission on Textbook Accessibility for the U.S. Congress). In addition, CAST will help grantees to consider how to implement the APIP assessment item standard that supports matching assessment accommodations and features with individual student needs. This will ensure that learners are able to truly demonstrate what they know and can do. CAST will consider how similar matching could be implemented within the learning delivery systems.
Together, OLI and CAST will develop web-based technical assistance resources including a robust website and webinars designed to support community and technical colleges in implementing OLI learning guidelines, the UDL framework and techniques and technologies for complying with accessibility standards in the creation of web-based learning environments. Specific materials and strategies will be provided to ensure that the course designs implement aspects of Universal Design for Learning (UDL) most likely to provide improved learning outcomes. OLI will create an OLI course on Effective Course Design that will be available as an open and free OLI course.
3.4. Making the Case: Policy and Best Practices
The Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges (SBCTC) will utilize its system-wide experience in adoption, re-mix, re-use and distribution of OER to help grantee institutions develop best practices and policies that take full advantage of the TAACCCT grants and process.
SBCTC will draw on its own experience to develop policy best practices and demonstrate how the TAACCCT open content can most effectively be adopted and re-used, as widely as possible, with the most local buy-in, with minimal resistance. SBCTC will also demonstrate how a mix of strong faculty support and multi-direction strategic pressure points (students, faculty, deans, provosts, presidents, trustees, and legislature) can speed adoption of quality openly licensed programs, courseware and textbooks.
SBCTC is a national leader in performance-based funding models. Washington’s Governor is chair of the National Governor’s Association and its Complete to Compete initiative. The system’s Student Achievement Initiative will help to demonstrate how open licensing policies and the adoption of faculty incentives to adopt quality open content can increase student completion rates. SBCTC will help grantees understand the direct connections between OER adoption and performance-based funding.
SBCTC will report and share best practices with all (global) community and technical colleges and partner with existing associations and consortia to leverage existing networks and maximize impact (i.e. Educause, League for Innovations, American Association of Community Colleges, The International Association for K-12 Online Learning, Community College Consortium for Open Educational Resources, etc.).
SBCTC will also use its own 34-college system to advance the process. Multiple Washington Community and Technical Colleges will receive support to pilot TAACCCT open content created during the first grant period. The existing “faculty learning communities” within the WA CTCs will be used to support and advise faculty on adoption and re-use of TAACCCT open content.
To support adoption, SBCTC will develop and provide professional development on adoption and re-use of TAACCCT open content for faculty, deans, provosts, presidents and trustees. The support of these institutional players is critical to scalability and sustainability. SBCTC will also provide proof of concept demonstrations that allow educators and users of content to examine how their peers are using material created under TAACCCT and existing educational resources. SBCTC will create and broadly distribute policy best practices on how the TAACCCT open content can most effectively be accessed, accessed, re-mixed and re-used in digital and print-on-demand formats.
SBCTC will also work with all grantees based on need, with others more intensely based on an assessment of impact and opportunity, an exhibit a preference for the most global inclusion possible in all proposed activities.
3.5. Web-Based Learning Environments: Plus Platform and Plus Co-Development
OLI and CAST will build on this comprehensive set of supports and offer two additional options for deeper involvement in building web-based interactive environments. The Plus Platform option will provide support to institutions that choose to design their own OER independently and use the UDL-enhanced OLI platform for deployment. The Plus Co-Development option is the most intensive and includes a complete OLI/CAST co-design process and delivery of OER on the OLI platform.
The decision on which approach to take will be made mutually with the grantee. We anticipate selecting 25 Plus Platform grantees and multiple Plus Co-Development grantees who are willing to work together to co-develop 3-4 full OLI courses. The grantees selected for co-development will work together across projects to develop OER that they all agree to use rather than each grantee developing its own OER.
3.5.1 Plus Platform
For Plus Platform participants, OLI and CAST will support grantees that wish to deliver their independently designed web-based OER through the UDL-enhanced OLI platform. OLI and CAST will provide training and tools to grantee technical staff about how to add their content to the UDL-enhanced OLI platform. OLI will collect the interaction level data on student use and make that data available to the grantee to the extent possible given the design of the learning activities and the regulations on privacy of student data.
As part of this grant, CAST will enhance the OLI platform with UDL functionality by providing both technical expertise and adapting existing tools. CAST platform enhancements will include the capability for authors/curriculum developers and/or students to create:
- multimedia glossaries to support technical vocabulary development;
- animated coaches/agents that can be scripted to provide hints, models, directions, thinkalouds;
- notepads and tagging systems;
- highlighter tools that compare highlighting to an expert model or highlight critical features:
- text to speech tools that enable the reading aloud of text;
- audio record features; and
- drawing tools for students or authors to use as another means of conveying their understanding.
These capabilities could be developed for the OLI platform or provided as modules/tools that can be integrated, embedded, or linked-to depending on the purpose and technology considerations.
3.5.2. Plus Co-Development
The Plus Co-Development services will include complete design and delivery by OLI of OER that are web-based interactive learning environments (ILE). OLI will coordinate and lead OER teams composed of multiple subject matter experts (e.g., faculty, industry experts from the TAACCCT Grantee), CAST UDL experts, OLI course developers, OLI cognitive and learning scientists, OLI Human Computer Interaction experts, and OLI software engineers in a process to articulate the target student-centered measurable leaning outcomes for the OER and to design and deliver the OER to support students to achieve those outcomes. OLI will invite grantees from different projects in the same domain to collaborate on a single design team to create an OER that serves all projects. A prerequisite in the selection process will be a grantees willingness to serve on cross-project development teams.
Plus Co-Development OER teams will design web-based ILEs in accordance with current research on human learning, Universal Design for Learning (UDL) principles, Human Computer Interaction usability studies and the affordances of the current technology to support students to achieve the specified learning outcomes. The ILE will be delivered through the UDL-enhanced OLI delivery platform, while collecting the interaction level data on student use to drive the feedback loops to the learner, the instructor, the OER design team, the learning science and UDL communities of practice. Effectiveness of the OER in supporting learners to achieve the articulated outcomes and improve the OER will be evaluated based on data collected through student use.
OLI will provide hosting and delivery to grantees who select either service level described above, including hosting OER content and technical support for students and instructors. Through Learning Tools Interoperability (LTI), OLI will also make it possible for institutions to use their local LTI compliant LMS to deliver courses. Students and teachers will have single sign-on shared authentication.
CAST will integrate UDL considerations with the work OLI is doing on platforms and will provide complementary technical assistance and enabling technologies that have been developed for the National Science Foundation, the U.S. Department of Education, and the Carnegie Corporation of New York.
CAST will enhance the OLI platform with UDL functionality by providing both technical expertise and adapting existing tools. CAST will provide modular technologies for UDL and basic 508 accessibility, modify existing modular technologies to optimize their compatibility and effectiveness within the OLI platform, and provide technical assistance to OLI engineers and learning designers on incorporating UDL technologies to ensure basic accessibility. Additionally, CAST will develop new UDL modules or adapt modules under development to meet the requirements of continuous improvement (as indicated by feedback loops from learning designers, teachers, individual students, etc.), participate in continuous improvement cycles, and conduct usability studies to ensure that UDL functionality is designed effectively across the full spectrum of learners.
Grantees will be consulted about their level of involvement. Selection for these Plus services will be based on criteria including, current implementation of web-based OER, interest in working with other institutions in the same domain area, and willingness to collaborate and use a shared environment. We will favor initiatives with potential in high impact workforce areas.
In addition to the specific services outlined above, OLI will lead a planning cycle to determine how to transition OLI technologies into an open source software project.
4. Implementation and Results
The tremendous variability in intensity of need among between grantee institutions, leads us to divide this work into two phases. This proposal deals entirely with the first phase of foundational work required to support the DOL grantees. We anticipate the potential for a second phase to respond either to significant opportunities for partnerships that deeply engrain the work, an expansion of successful web-based environment development to a greater number of grantees, and/or more intensive work to meet recalcitrant obstacles to effective implementation of open licensing principles. Phase One will cut a path and allow us to better understand the terrain and how best to respond to these needs and opportunities. Phase Two opportunities will likely be revealed by as early as the first year of the grant.
There are five critical outcomes of our collective work in Phase One and the expected deliverables and activities required to yield these results. The outcomes are structured as follows:
- Comprehensive Infrastructure Support and Capacity Building
- Plus Platform
- Plus Co-Development
- Adoption and Policy
Measurement, Learning, and Evaluation
Over the long-term, our overarching goals are the following:
- Publicly funded educational materials should be freely and openly available to the public that paid for them;
- Build a strong culture of data-driven continuous improvement and sharing in the post-secondary education sector uniting cognitive science with information technology capabilities;
- Yield higher return on investment in students and workforce development.
To reach these ambitious outcomes, we must begin during the 36-month period of the proposed grant to deliver on a key number of time critical activities and tasks. A detailed evaluation plan will be developed during the first six months of the grant that will include at minimum details of the following elements:
- Surveys for all TAACCCT grantees at the point of selection prior to the initial national conference, mid-point survey prior to the second web-based national conference, and at the end of the 36-month period of the grant. A key early deliverable with be development of the baseline survey that will: identify baseline knowledge of TAACCCT grantees; explore specifics of knowledge gaps; and assist identify potential participants for the Plus Platform and Plus Co-Development OLI/CAST services. CC and SBCTC will also leverage the opportunity of the survey to explore high leverage opportunities;
- Aggregation and anonymized reporting by Creative Commons on questions and problems raised in providing support to grantees, aiming to discover opportunities to ease and improve implementation in future waves of TAACCCT;
- One or more publications by CC characterizing the quantitative and qualitative impact of TAACCCT’s CC BY policy, and present opportunities for future improvement and research;
- Effectiveness of the learning environments in supporting the target population to achieve the specified learning outcomes in the courses created and adapted by the OLI Design Teams. OLI will evaluate success on the whole course level using the learning effectiveness study methods developed and applied in existing OLI courses. As part of the design and improvement process OLI has analyzed the data collected from student use to evaluate the effectiveness of specific learning activities and revise activities based on this analysis. In addition to analyzing the data to understand student progress in learning-domain knowledge, OLI will analyze the data to monitor student progress in developing more effective study strategies and meta-cognitive reflection and self-regulation competencies. Impact will be tracked on the target population in ALL of the evaluations. The results of studies will be documented in technical reports and publications. Faculty from grantee institutions will be invited to co-author papers as appropriate.
- General principles for web-based learning environment design will be evaluated by the OLI Design Teams. As new understanding is gained of how to apply learning science to design web-based environments, OLI course will be improved to build effective learning environments that are now under development through other grant funding. Researchers at the Pittsburgh Science of Learning Center may also introduce variations in learning activities into the learning environments to refine our understanding of how people learn, and the results of their research in these courses will be disseminated through the PSLC theory wiki and various publications.
- Course design will be evaluated against UDL rubric and against UDL assessment standards by CAST; Adoption will be examined and analyzed by SBCTC. Comparison measurements of the results of Comprehensive Infrastructure Services vis-à-vis the Plus Platform vis-à-vis Plus Co-Development services. Metrics for overall TAACCCT impact as part of the overall evaluation plan. Indicators of success will include analytics of web traffic to the government TAACCCT repository. Through this kind of measurement and radiating “halo effect,” we seek to measure identify take-up far beyond the colleges we directly engage in this 36-month grant.
Following an S-shaped innovation curve, and keeping with the typical time trajectory for innovation design, development, diffusion and maturity, we expect the knowledge and innovation to be developed over the next 36 months in Wave 1 will accelerate the impact of Waves 2, 3 and 4 of DOL funding.
5. COLEARNING ACTIVITY
A series of videos at http://open4us.org/resources/#Videos profile the work OPEN partners are providing for DOL TAACCCT grantees.
While watching these videos readers are encouraged to consider:
- Should publicly funded education development result in publicly accessible education resources?
- How might OER expand access, save money, and improve the quality of education around the world?
- What government and/or institutional curriculum development initiatives in your region could benefit from pursuing a similar approach?
Readers are encouraged to search for openly licensed resources to use in their own education work using the Creative Commons search tool at:
More information can also be accessed in this videoclip which presents this content in the OCW Conference 2012
OER2: Creative Commons and the Department of Labor US$2 Billion Grant Program (CC BY required): update and early project plans
Author: Cable Green, Creative Commons, US
Objectives: discuss the vision and planned activities for future funding rounds, and for scaling open licensing to other federal programs more generally
License: Creative Commons (CC BY) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
6. FUTURE WORK or LESSONS LEARNED
Developing OER involves:
- licensing the work to be open using Creative Commons licenses
- government and institutional change around policy, collaboration, and practices
- providing online tools and assistance for finding, evaluating, authoring, storing and distributing OER
The OPEN partnership network continuing to work together in supporting all rounds of the DOL TAACCCT grant program and leveraging that work to support adoption of similar practices by others.
This $2 billion government grant is an example of open policy. Publicly funded resources should be openly licensed resources. Citizens who pay for education or research or other resources with their tax dollars should have free and open (as in legal access vis-à-vis an open license) access to what they funded. First, global open advocates should look at this government open policy as a model for what can happen in their country. Second, OPEN might be viewed as a model of how the open community can support, with our technical assistance, government projects that require their grantees to share what they build with public funds.
All of OPEN’s resources are licensed CC BY and posted on: http://open4us.org
Green, C. & Stacey, P. (2012). Creative Commons and the Department of Labor US$2 Billion Grant Program (CC BY required). In: Okada, A. (2012).Open Educational Resources and Social Networks: Co-Learning and Professional Development. London: Scholio Educational Research & Publishing.
This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/.
It is an adapted version of: Green, C. (2012). Creative Commons and the Department of Labor US$2 Billion Grant Program (CC BY required): Update and early Project Plans. In Proceedings of Cambridge 2012: Innovation and Impact – Openly Collaborating to Enhance Education, a joint meeting of OER12 and OpenCourseWare Consortium Global 2012. Cambridge, UK.